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In November of 1940 the War Department, after two years of experimenting in search of a highly mobile ground reconnaissance force, selected seven national guard and two regular army cavalry regiments to be reorganized as "Horse-Mechanized Cavalry." With a new national emergency in sight, and mobilization already under way, the 102nd (Essex Troop) Cavalry was honored by being selected as one of these.
The new regiment consisted of a rifle squadron (horse), reconnaissance squadron (mechanized), a headquarters troop and service troop, the latter embodying portee equipment for the horse squadron. From a peacetime strength of about 500 men, the organization jumped to a mobilization table of some 1,500 and active recruiting was started immediately.
United States Army, World War 1939-1945, Regimental histories, 102nd Cavalry Regiment
United States Army, "102 United States Cavalry (H-MECZ) 1942" (1942). World War Regimental Histories. 65.
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